Otro

Cosas que probablemente no sabías sobre los peregrinos


Por lo general, pensamos en los peregrinos como exiliados británicos que navegaron hacia América del Norte y se establecieron en Massachusetts. Pero la verdad es un poco más complicada que eso; Los peregrinos originales eran 35 miembros de la facción puritana radical de la Iglesia de Inglaterra llamada Iglesia Separatista Inglesa, que se separó ilegalmente del resto de la Iglesia en 1607. El grupo se estableció originalmente en los Países Bajos, donde las leyes eran mucho más indulgentes. .

Haga clic aquí para ver las 14 cosas que probablemente no sabía sobre los peregrinos (presentación de diapositivas)

Allí, los separatistas sufrieron dificultades económicas y temieron la pérdida de su lengua y cultura inglesas. Esto inspiró su viaje al Nuevo Mundo, un nuevo hogar donde serían libres de practicar su religión y su forma de vida.

En septiembre de 1620, se unieron a una sociedad anónima de Londres para financiar su viaje a bordo del muguete, un barco mercante de tres mástiles cruzó el Atlántico. Tenían la intención de establecerse en un área cerca del río Hudson, parte de la colonia de Virginia, pero debido a los mares tormentosos, el Mayflower finalmente ancló dos meses después en lo que pronto se llamaría el puerto de Plymouth, en lo que ahora es Massachusetts.

Ese primer invierno fue extremadamente duro, pero las cosas comenzaron a mejorar con la ayuda de Squanto (también conocido como Tisquantum), un nativo americano de la tribu Pawtuxet que había sido capturado por los primeros exploradores en 1605 y llevado a Inglaterra, donde aprendió el idioma. El capitán John Smith lo trajo de regreso a Nueva Inglaterra en 1614, y fue Squanto quien enseñó a los peregrinos sobre la tierra, dónde cazar y cómo plantar maíz, que se convirtió en un cultivo esencial.

Los peregrinos son quizás más conocidos por la celebración de la cosecha que compartieron con sus vecinos nativos americanos: Acción de gracias. Pero hay más para los peregrinos que el muguete, persecución religiosa, y que primer día de acción de gracias. Aquí hay algunos datos poco conocidos sobre los peregrinos que quizás desee repartir en la mesa de Acción de Gracias este año.

Libros de cocina

El Día de Acción de Gracias es un día festivo en el que aparecen recetas antiguas y tradicionales, y los libros de cocina están en plena vigencia. Los peregrinos también utilizaron libros de cocina, como lo demuestran varios "libros de recetas" del período. Estos libros brindan información sobre la cocina en ese momento. El más famoso puede ser el de Gervase Markham. El ama de casa inglesa, que se publicó por primera vez en 1615.

Maíz con cualquier otro nombre

Gracias a Squanto, los peregrinos pudieron plantar maíz con éxito y se convirtió en un cultivo de suma importancia para los colonos. Sin embargo, probablemente lo llamaron "maíz indio" o "trigo de pavo ". En el inglés de la época, la palabra maíz significa, centeno, cebada, avena u otros granos.


10 cosas que probablemente no sepa sobre la pasta

Aunque crecí en Nueva York con muchos amigos italoamericanos y he comido en Italia un par de veces, no fue hasta que abrí el libro de Julia della Croce, "Pasta Classica: El arte de la cocina italiana", que me di cuenta de lo mucho que no sabía sobre la historia de esta comida.

Mi conocimiento se limitaba a saber que, de alguna manera, se suponía que las diferentes formas de la pasta iban con diferentes salsas, y que Marco Polo había traído pasta a Italia desde su viaje a China, ¡solo que resulta que ambos "hechos" son incorrectos! No sabía cuánto tenía que aprender.

Hice una lista de algunos de los hechos reales que descubrí y, si desea obtener más información, puede leer un extracto del capítulo de historia del libro de Della Croce, que contiene mucho más que los detalles que se enumeran aquí, y del cual las citas más largas aquí se toman.

1. La pasta se consumía en todo el mundo mucho antes de que naciera Marco Polo. Polo hizo su viaje a China en 1269, regresando a Venecia 24 años después. Pero la pasta se comía en Sicilia en 1154, y es posible que los griegos comieran alguna versión de la pasta ya en el año 1 d.C. Existen numerosos (y a veces contradictorios) relatos históricos sobre el consumo de pasta en todo el Medio Oriente (en el Talmud de Jerusalén en el año 5 d.C.), el Mediterráneo y varias partes de Asia, todo antes del viaje de Polo y que se remonta a cientos e incluso miles de años. .

2. El primer plato de pasta que la gente comió fue probablemente lasaña. En un libro de recetas del siglo III compilado por el noble romano y destacado gourmet Marcus Apicius, describió un plato hecho con capas de laganon, que es un fideo ancho similar a lo que hoy conocemos como fideos de lasaña: los laganon se usaban para hacer un relleno y pastel en capas en la descripción de Apicus. Y como describe Corby Kummer en un artículo de Atlantic que también ahonda en la historia de la pasta, "Marco Polo habló de lasaña, que luego significaba 'fideos', para describir lo que vio, lo que indica que ya estaba familiarizado con la comida ".

3. Pasta secca (pasta seca) ayudó a nuestros antepasados ​​a explorar el mundo. Tanto si se trataba de un largo viaje en caravana por terreno desértico como de un largo viaje en barco, la pasta seca era una buena fuente de calorías y nutrientes que podían transportarse a largas distancias sin estropearse. La pasta se puede cocinar con algún tipo de grasa y sal y cualquier verdura, carne o pescado que se pueda encontrar para una comida satisfactoria. (¿Crees que te cansarías de la pasta? Se mantiene sorprendentemente bien: la comí la mayoría de las noches en un viaje de campamento de dos semanas en las Montañas Rocosas (combinada con queso seco y salsa de tomate), y todavía recuerdo lo delicioso y satisfactorio que es. fue después de un largo día de esfuerzo físico.)

4. La salubridad de la pasta ha estado en duda durante la mayor parte de su historia. Hace unos 400 años, el Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine calificó la pasta como una amenaza para la salud. El monje Girolamo Savonarola pensó que consumir pasta y otros alimentos "lujosos" se interpondría entre las personas y su pureza espiritual. Gritó desde su púlpito: "No es suficiente que te comas la pasta frita. ¡No! Crees que hay que echarle ajo, y cuando comes ravioles, no te alcanza con hervirlo en una olla y comérselo en su boca." jugo, hay que freírlo en otra sartén y cubrirlo con queso! " No estoy seguro del final del buen doctor, pero no vale nada que Savonarola fuera quemado en la hoguera.

5. Algunos incluso pensaron que la pasta podría causar enfermedades mentales. Todos, desde el filósofo alemán Arthur Schopenhauer hasta el partido fascista italiano, pensaban que la pasta hacía que la gente se sintiera demasiado relajada y perezosa; Mussolini incluso consideró prohibirla en un momento. Della Croce escribe: "En la década de 1930, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, el poeta futurista italiano y reformador social, se embarcó en una cruzada muy publicitada para cambiar la dieta italiana, específicamente la" adicción "centenaria a la pasta". Es necesario , de una vez por todas, para aniquilar la pasta. . . . Pastasciuttaaunque agradecido al paladar, es un alimento obsoleto, es pesado, brutal y asqueroso, sus cualidades nutritivas son engañosas, induce a la pereza, el escepticismo y el pesimismo ». En un país en el umbral de la guerra, la acusación de Marinetti: "¡Los espaguetis no son comida para los combatientes!" no caí en oídos sordos ".

6. La pasta era una comida callejera y los espaguetis se comían a mano. Según el libro de Della Croce, en Nápoles "Se desarrolló una cultura callejera en torno a cocinar, vender y comer pasta seca. Por todas partes se veían fogatas de carbón rodeadas de puestos de madera improvisados, que ofrecían una olla de agua hirviendo con sal llena de macarrones. montículo de queso rallado esperaba que se apilara encima, y ​​la pasta se comía así, con los dedos ".

7. La pasta se amasaba a pie en Italia. En los hogares de las personas, la mayoría elaboraba pasta mezclándola y amasando a mano. Pero la pasta también se hacía en fábricas que se remontaban al menos al siglo XVIII y, aunque producían cantidades de pasta, no tenían muchas máquinas para hacerlo. Entonces, los trabajadores mezclaban y amasaban la pasta con los pies mientras estaban sentados en bancos, y luego la colgaban para secarla en rejillas largas. Escribe della Croce: "Todavía en el siglo XIX, las operaciones comerciales de pasta estaban equipadas con enormes comederos llenos de masa, que era amasada por trabajadores descalzos que caminaban al ritmo de la música de mandolina. El rey de Nápoles, Fernando II (1830-1859) , trató de modernizarse contratando a un famoso ingeniero para diseñar un nuevo sistema más higiénico. (El resultado fue un hombre mecánico con pies de bronce) ".

8. La primera fábrica de pasta en los Estados Unidos estaba en Brooklyn. En este caso, fueron los caballos los que hicieron el trabajo que estaban amarrados a un dispositivo amasador gigante. Zerega Pasta se fundó en 1848 y todavía se vende en la actualidad, aunque la sede de la empresa se trasladó a Nueva Jersey en 1952.

9. La canción 'Yankee Doodle' fue escrita por los ingleses para burlarse de los estadounidenses, pero resultó contraproducente. Escribe Kummer en The Atlantic: "A mediados del siglo XVIII macarrones se refirió a un peinado exagerado, así como al dandy que lo usa, lo que puede ser la razón por la que Yankee Doodle se metió una pluma en la gorra y llamó al efecto macarrones. Garabatear proviene de una palabra alemana que significa "simplón", la misma definición que fideos en ese momento (los alimentos honestos y ricos en almidón como las bolas de masa han tenido durante mucho tiempo mala reputación). La canción "Yankee Doodle" fue utilizada por los británicos para ridiculizar a los colonos estadounidenses, que la adoptaron en defensa propia ".

10. En los primeros platos, la pasta solía ser un plato dulce, no salado. "Según Al Idrisi, el geógrafo árabe encargado por el rey Roger II de Sicilia a principios del siglo XII para escribir un libro sobre sus exploraciones de la isla, los sicilianos hicieron un tipo de pasta llamada itriyah (la palabra persa para "cadena"). Estaba formado alrededor de una aguja de tejer para hacerlo hueco. Evolucionó a tria y luego trii , una especie de espagueti que todavía se usa en Sicilia y en algunas otras partes del sur de Italia. La antigüedad tria (que significa "pequeños hilos") se servían con salsas dulces a menudo basadas en miel y canela, ingredientes que siguen siendo prominentes en la cocina siciliana ", escribe della Croce.


10 cosas que probablemente no sepa sobre la pasta

Aunque crecí en Nueva York con muchos amigos italoamericanos y he comido en Italia un par de veces, no fue hasta que abrí el libro de Julia della Croce, "Pasta Classica: El arte de la cocina italiana", que Me di cuenta de lo mucho que no sabía sobre la historia de esta comida.

Mi conocimiento se limitaba a saber que de alguna manera, se suponía que las diferentes formas de la pasta iban con diferentes salsas, y que Marco Polo había traído pasta a Italia desde su viaje a China, ¡solo que resulta que ambos "hechos" son incorrectos! No sabía cuánto tenía que aprender.

Hice una lista de algunos de los hechos reales que descubrí y, si desea obtener más información, puede leer un extracto del capítulo de historia del libro de Della Croce, que contiene mucho más que los detalles que se enumeran aquí, y del cual las citas más largas aquí se toman.

1. La pasta se consumía en todo el mundo mucho antes de que naciera Marco Polo. Polo hizo su viaje a China en 1269, regresando a Venecia 24 años después. Pero la pasta se comía en Sicilia en 1154, y es posible que los griegos comieran alguna versión de la pasta ya en el año 1 d.C. Existen numerosos (y a veces contradictorios) relatos históricos sobre el consumo de pasta en todo el Medio Oriente (en el Talmud de Jerusalén en el año 5 d.C.), el Mediterráneo y varias partes de Asia, todo antes del viaje de Polo y que se remonta a cientos e incluso miles de años. .

2. El primer plato de pasta que comió la gente probablemente fue lasaña. En un libro de recetas del siglo III compilado por el noble romano y destacado gourmet Marcus Apicius, describió un plato hecho con capas de laganon, que es un fideo ancho similar a lo que hoy conocemos como fideos de lasaña: los laganon se usaban para hacer un relleno y pastel en capas en la descripción de Apicus. Y como describe Corby Kummer en un artículo de Atlantic que también ahonda en la historia de la pasta, "Marco Polo habló de lasaña, que luego significaba 'fideos', para describir lo que vio, lo que indica que ya estaba familiarizado con la comida ".

3. Pasta secca (pasta seca) ayudó a nuestros antepasados ​​a explorar el mundo. Tanto si se trataba de un largo viaje en caravana por un terreno desértico como de un largo viaje en barco, la pasta seca era una buena fuente de calorías y nutrientes que podían transportarse a largas distancias sin estropearse. La pasta se puede cocinar con algún tipo de grasa y sal y cualquier verdura, carne o pescado que se pueda encontrar para una comida satisfactoria. (¿Crees que te cansarías de la pasta? Se mantiene sorprendentemente bien: la comí la mayoría de las noches en un viaje de campamento de dos semanas en las Montañas Rocosas (combinada con queso seco y salsa de tomate), y todavía recuerdo lo delicioso y satisfactorio que es. fue después de un largo día de esfuerzo físico.)

4. La salubridad de la pasta ha estado en duda durante la mayor parte de su historia. Hace unos 400 años, el Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine calificó la pasta como una amenaza para la salud. El monje Girolamo Savonarola pensó que consumir pasta y otros alimentos "lujosos" se interpondría entre las personas y su pureza espiritual. Gritó desde su púlpito: "No es suficiente que te comas la pasta frita. ¡No! Crees que hay que echarle ajo, y cuando comes ravioles, no basta con hervirlo en una olla y comértelo en su boca." jugo, hay que freírlo en otra sartén y cubrirlo con queso! " No estoy seguro del final del buen doctor, pero no vale nada que Savonarola fuera quemado en la hoguera.

5. Algunos incluso pensaron que la pasta podría causar enfermedades mentales. Todo el mundo, desde el filósofo alemán Arthur Schopenhauer hasta el partido fascista italiano, pensaba que la pasta hacía que la gente se sintiera demasiado relajada y perezosa; Mussolini incluso consideró prohibirla en un momento. Della Croce escribe: "En la década de 1930, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, el poeta futurista italiano y reformador social, se embarcó en una cruzada muy publicitada para cambiar la dieta italiana, específicamente la" adicción "centenaria a la pasta". Es necesario , de una vez por todas, para aniquilar la pasta. . . . Pastasciuttapor muy agradecido que sea para el paladar, es un alimento obsoleto, es pesado, brutal y asqueroso, sus cualidades nutritivas son engañosas, induce a la pereza, el escepticismo y el pesimismo ». En un país en el umbral de la guerra, la acusación de Marinetti: "¡Los espaguetis no son comida para los combatientes!" no caí en oídos sordos ".

6. La pasta era una comida callejera y los espaguetis se comían a mano. Según el libro de Della Croce, en Nápoles "Se desarrolló una cultura callejera en torno a cocinar, vender y comer pasta seca. Por todas partes se veían fogatas de carbón rodeadas de puestos de madera improvisados, que ofrecían una olla de agua hirviendo con sal llena de macarrones. montículo de queso rallado esperaba que se apilara encima, y ​​la pasta se comía así, con los dedos ".

7. La pasta se amasaba a pie en Italia. En los hogares de las personas, la mayoría elaboraba pasta mezclándola y amasando a mano. Pero la pasta también se hacía en fábricas que se remontaban al menos al siglo XVIII y, aunque producían cantidades de pasta, no tenían muchas máquinas para hacerlo. Entonces, los trabajadores mezclaban y amasaban la pasta con los pies mientras estaban sentados en bancos, y luego la colgaban para secarla en rejillas largas. Escribe della Croce: "Todavía en el siglo XIX, las operaciones comerciales de pasta estaban equipadas con enormes comederos llenos de masa, que era amasada por trabajadores descalzos que caminaban al ritmo de la música de mandolina. El rey de Nápoles, Fernando II (1830-1859) , trató de modernizarse contratando a un famoso ingeniero para diseñar un nuevo sistema más higiénico. (El resultado fue un hombre mecánico con pies de bronce) ".

8. La primera fábrica de pasta en Estados Unidos estaba en Brooklyn. En este caso, fueron los caballos los que hicieron el trabajo que estaban amarrados a un dispositivo amasador gigante. Zerega Pasta se fundó en 1848 y todavía se vende en la actualidad, aunque la sede de la empresa se trasladó a Nueva Jersey en 1952.

9. La canción 'Yankee Doodle' fue escrita por los ingleses para burlarse de los estadounidenses, pero resultó contraproducente. Escribe Kummer en The Atlantic: "A mediados del siglo XVIII macarrones se refirió a un peinado exagerado, así como al dandy que lo usa, lo que puede ser la razón por la que Yankee Doodle se metió una pluma en la gorra y llamó al efecto macarrones. Garabatear proviene de una palabra alemana que significa "simplón", la misma definición que fideos en ese momento (los alimentos honestos y ricos en almidón como las bolas de masa han tenido durante mucho tiempo mala reputación). La canción "Yankee Doodle" fue utilizada por los británicos para ridiculizar a los colonos estadounidenses, que la adoptaron en defensa propia ".

10. En los primeros platos, la pasta solía ser un plato dulce, no salado. "Según Al Idrisi, el geógrafo árabe encargado por el rey Roger II de Sicilia a principios del siglo XII para escribir un libro sobre sus exploraciones de la isla, los sicilianos hicieron un tipo de pasta llamada itriyah (la palabra persa para "cadena"). Estaba formado alrededor de una aguja de tejer para hacerlo hueco. Evolucionó a tria y luego trii , una especie de espagueti que todavía se usa en Sicilia y en algunas otras partes del sur de Italia. La antigüedad tria (que significa "pequeños hilos") se servían con salsas dulces a menudo basadas en miel y canela, ingredientes que siguen siendo prominentes en la cocina siciliana ", escribe della Croce.


10 cosas que probablemente no sepa sobre la pasta

Aunque crecí en Nueva York con muchos amigos italoamericanos y he comido en Italia un par de veces, no fue hasta que abrí el libro de Julia della Croce, "Pasta Classica: El arte de la cocina italiana", que Me di cuenta de lo mucho que no sabía sobre la historia de esta comida.

Mi conocimiento se limitaba a saber que de alguna manera, se suponía que las diferentes formas de la pasta iban con diferentes salsas, y que Marco Polo había traído pasta a Italia desde su viaje a China, ¡solo que resulta que ambos "hechos" son incorrectos! No sabía cuánto tenía que aprender.

Hice una lista de algunos de los hechos reales que descubrí y, si desea obtener más información, puede leer un extracto del capítulo de historia del libro de Della Croce, que contiene mucho más que los detalles que se enumeran aquí, y del cual las citas más largas aquí se toman.

1. La pasta se consumía en todo el mundo mucho antes de que naciera Marco Polo. Polo hizo su viaje a China en 1269, regresando a Venecia 24 años después. Pero la pasta se comía en Sicilia en 1154, y es posible que los griegos comieran alguna versión de la pasta ya en el año 1 d.C. Existen numerosos (y a veces contradictorios) relatos históricos sobre el consumo de pasta en todo el Medio Oriente (en el Talmud de Jerusalén en el año 5 d.C.), el Mediterráneo y varias partes de Asia, todo antes del viaje de Polo y que se remonta a cientos e incluso miles de años. .

2. El primer plato de pasta que la gente comió fue probablemente lasaña. En un libro de recetas del siglo III compilado por el noble romano y destacado gourmet Marcus Apicius, describió un plato hecho con capas de laganon, que es un fideo ancho similar a lo que hoy conocemos como fideos de lasaña: los laganon se usaban para hacer un relleno y pastel en capas en la descripción de Apicus. Y como describe Corby Kummer en un artículo de Atlantic que también ahonda en la historia de la pasta, "Marco Polo habló de lasaña, que luego significaba 'fideos', para describir lo que vio, lo que indica que ya estaba familiarizado con la comida ".

3. Pasta secca (pasta seca) ayudó a nuestros antepasados ​​a explorar el mundo. Tanto si se trataba de un largo viaje en caravana por un terreno desértico como de un largo viaje en barco, la pasta seca era una buena fuente de calorías y nutrientes que podían transportarse a largas distancias sin estropearse. La pasta se puede cocinar con algún tipo de grasa y sal y cualquier verdura, carne o pescado que se pueda encontrar para una comida satisfactoria. (¿Crees que te cansarías de la pasta? Se mantiene sorprendentemente bien: la comí la mayoría de las noches en un viaje de campamento de dos semanas en las Montañas Rocosas (combinada con queso seco y salsa de tomate), y todavía recuerdo lo delicioso y satisfactorio que es. fue después de un largo día de esfuerzo físico.)

4. La salubridad de la pasta ha estado en duda durante la mayor parte de su historia. Hace unos 400 años, el Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine calificó la pasta como una amenaza para la salud. El monje Girolamo Savonarola pensó que consumir pasta y otros alimentos "lujosos" se interpondría entre las personas y su pureza espiritual. Gritó desde su púlpito: "No es suficiente que te comas la pasta frita. ¡No! Crees que hay que echarle ajo, y cuando comes ravioles, no te alcanza con hervirlo en una olla y comérselo en su boca." jugo, hay que freírlo en otra sartén y cubrirlo con queso! " No estoy seguro del final del buen doctor, pero no vale nada que Savonarola fuera quemado en la hoguera.

5. Algunos incluso pensaron que la pasta podría causar enfermedades mentales. Todo el mundo, desde el filósofo alemán Arthur Schopenhauer hasta el partido fascista italiano, pensaba que la pasta hacía que la gente se sintiera demasiado relajada y perezosa; Mussolini incluso consideró prohibirla en un momento. Della Croce escribe: "En la década de 1930, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, el poeta futurista italiano y reformador social, se embarcó en una cruzada muy publicitada para cambiar la dieta italiana, específicamente la" adicción "centenaria a la pasta". Es necesario , de una vez por todas, para aniquilar la pasta. . . . Pastasciuttapor muy agradecido que sea para el paladar, es un alimento obsoleto, es pesado, brutal y asqueroso, sus cualidades nutritivas son engañosas, induce a la pereza, el escepticismo y el pesimismo ». En un país en el umbral de la guerra, la acusación de Marinetti: "¡Los espaguetis no son comida para los combatientes!" no caí en oídos sordos ".

6. La pasta era una comida callejera y los espaguetis se comían a mano. Según el libro de Della Croce, en Nápoles "Se desarrolló una cultura callejera en torno a cocinar, vender y comer pasta seca. Por todas partes se veían fogatas de carbón rodeadas de puestos de madera improvisados, que ofrecían una olla de agua hirviendo con sal llena de macarrones. montículo de queso rallado esperaba que se apilara encima, y ​​la pasta se comía así, con los dedos ".

7. La pasta se amasaba a pie en Italia. En los hogares de las personas, la mayoría elaboraba pasta mezclándola y amasando a mano. Pero la pasta también se hacía en fábricas que se remontaban al menos al siglo XVIII y, aunque producían cantidades de pasta, no tenían muchas máquinas para hacerlo. Entonces, los trabajadores mezclaban y amasaban la pasta con los pies mientras estaban sentados en bancos, y luego la colgaban para secarla en rejillas largas. Escribe della Croce: "Todavía en el siglo XIX, las operaciones comerciales de pasta estaban equipadas con enormes comederos llenos de masa, que era amasada por trabajadores descalzos que caminaban al ritmo de la música de mandolina. El rey de Nápoles, Fernando II (1830-1859) , trató de modernizarse contratando a un famoso ingeniero para diseñar un nuevo sistema más higiénico. (El resultado fue un hombre mecánico con pies de bronce) ".

8. La primera fábrica de pasta en Estados Unidos estaba en Brooklyn. En este caso, fueron los caballos los que hicieron el trabajo que estaban amarrados a un dispositivo amasador gigante. Zerega Pasta se fundó en 1848 y todavía se vende en la actualidad, aunque la sede de la empresa se trasladó a Nueva Jersey en 1952.

9. La canción 'Yankee Doodle' fue escrita por los ingleses para burlarse de los estadounidenses, pero resultó contraproducente. Escribe Kummer en The Atlantic: "A mediados del siglo XVIII macarrones se refirió a un peinado exagerado, así como al dandy que lo usa, lo que puede ser la razón por la que Yankee Doodle se metió una pluma en la gorra y llamó al efecto macarrones. Garabatear proviene de una palabra alemana que significa "simplón", la misma definición que fideos en ese momento (los alimentos honestos y ricos en almidón como las bolas de masa han tenido durante mucho tiempo una mala reputación). La canción "Yankee Doodle" fue utilizada por los británicos para ridiculizar a los colonos estadounidenses, quienes la adoptaron en defensa propia ".

10. En los primeros platos, la pasta solía ser un plato dulce, no salado. "Según Al Idrisi, el geógrafo árabe encargado por el rey Roger II de Sicilia a principios del siglo XII para escribir un libro sobre sus exploraciones de la isla, los sicilianos hicieron un tipo de pasta llamada itriyah (la palabra persa para "cadena"). Estaba formado alrededor de una aguja de tejer para hacerlo hueco. Evolucionó a tria y luego trii , una especie de espagueti que todavía se usa en Sicilia y en algunas otras partes del sur de Italia. La antigüedad tria (que significa "pequeños hilos") se servían con salsas dulces a menudo basadas en miel y canela, ingredientes que siguen siendo prominentes en la cocina siciliana ", escribe della Croce.


10 cosas que probablemente no sepa sobre la pasta

Aunque crecí en Nueva York con muchos amigos italoamericanos y he comido en Italia un par de veces, no fue hasta que abrí el libro de Julia della Croce, "Pasta Classica: El arte de la cocina italiana", que me di cuenta de lo mucho que no sabía sobre la historia de esta comida.

Mi conocimiento se limitaba a saber que de alguna manera, se suponía que las diferentes formas de la pasta iban con diferentes salsas, y que Marco Polo había traído pasta a Italia desde su viaje a China, ¡solo que resulta que ambos "hechos" son incorrectos! No sabía cuánto tenía que aprender.

Hice una lista de algunos de los hechos reales que descubrí y, si desea obtener más información, puede leer un extracto del capítulo de historia del libro de Della Croce, que contiene mucho más que los detalles que se enumeran aquí, y del cual las citas más largas aquí se toman.

1. La pasta se consumía en todo el mundo mucho antes de que naciera Marco Polo. Polo hizo su viaje a China en 1269, regresando a Venecia 24 años después. Pero la pasta se comía en Sicilia en 1154, y es posible que los griegos comieran alguna versión de la pasta ya en el año 1 d.C. Existen numerosos (y a veces contradictorios) relatos históricos sobre el consumo de pasta en todo el Medio Oriente (en el Talmud de Jerusalén en el año 5 d.C.), el Mediterráneo y varias partes de Asia, todo antes del viaje de Polo y que se remonta a cientos e incluso miles de años. .

2. El primer plato de pasta que comió la gente probablemente fue lasaña. En un libro de recetas del siglo III compilado por el noble romano y destacado gourmet Marcus Apicius, describió un plato hecho con capas de laganon, que es un fideo ancho similar a lo que hoy conocemos como fideos de lasaña: los laganon se usaban para hacer un relleno y pastel en capas en la descripción de Apicus. Y como describe Corby Kummer en un artículo de Atlantic que también ahonda en la historia de la pasta, "Marco Polo habló de lasaña, que luego significaba 'fideos', para describir lo que vio, lo que indica que ya estaba familiarizado con la comida ".

3. Pasta secca (pasta seca) ayudó a nuestros antepasados ​​a explorar el mundo. Tanto si se trataba de un largo viaje en caravana por un terreno desértico como de un largo viaje en barco, la pasta seca era una buena fuente de calorías y nutrientes que podían transportarse a largas distancias sin estropearse. La pasta se puede cocinar con algún tipo de grasa y sal y cualquier verdura, carne o pescado que se pueda encontrar para una comida satisfactoria. (¿Crees que te cansarías de la pasta? Se mantiene sorprendentemente bien: la comí la mayoría de las noches en un viaje de campamento de dos semanas en las Montañas Rocosas (combinada con queso seco y salsa de tomate), y todavía recuerdo lo delicioso y satisfactorio que es. fue después de un largo día de esfuerzo físico.)

4. La salubridad de la pasta ha estado en duda durante la mayor parte de su historia. Hace unos 400 años, el Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine calificó la pasta como una amenaza para la salud. El monje Girolamo Savonarola pensó que consumir pasta y otros alimentos "lujosos" se interpondría entre las personas y su pureza espiritual. Gritó desde su púlpito: "No es suficiente que te comas la pasta frita. ¡No! Crees que hay que echarle ajo, y cuando comes ravioles, no basta con hervirlo en una olla y comértelo en su boca." jugo, hay que freírlo en otra sartén y cubrirlo con queso! " No estoy seguro del final del buen doctor, pero no vale nada que Savonarola fuera quemado en la hoguera.

5. Algunos incluso pensaron que la pasta podría causar enfermedades mentales. Todo el mundo, desde el filósofo alemán Arthur Schopenhauer hasta el partido fascista italiano, pensaba que la pasta hacía que la gente se sintiera demasiado relajada y perezosa; Mussolini incluso consideró prohibirla en un momento. Della Croce escribe: "En la década de 1930, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, el poeta futurista italiano y reformador social, se embarcó en una cruzada muy publicitada para cambiar la dieta italiana, específicamente la" adicción "centenaria a la pasta". Es necesario , de una vez por todas, para aniquilar la pasta. . . . Pastasciuttapor muy agradecido que sea para el paladar, es un alimento obsoleto, es pesado, brutal y asqueroso, sus cualidades nutritivas son engañosas, induce a la pereza, el escepticismo y el pesimismo ». En un país en el umbral de la guerra, la acusación de Marinetti: "¡Los espaguetis no son comida para los combatientes!" no caí en oídos sordos ".

6. La pasta era una comida callejera y los espaguetis se comían a mano. Según el libro de Della Croce, en Nápoles "Se desarrolló una cultura callejera en torno a cocinar, vender y comer pasta seca. Por todas partes se veían fogatas de carbón rodeadas de puestos de madera improvisados, que ofrecían una olla de agua hirviendo con sal llena de macarrones. montículo de queso rallado esperaba que se apilara encima, y ​​la pasta se comía así, con los dedos ".

7. La pasta se amasaba a pie en Italia. En los hogares de las personas, la mayoría elaboraba pasta mezclándola y amasando a mano. Pero la pasta también se hacía en fábricas que se remontaban al menos al siglo XVIII y, aunque producían cantidades de pasta, no tenían muchas máquinas para hacerlo. Entonces, los trabajadores mezclaban y amasaban la pasta con los pies mientras estaban sentados en bancos, y luego la colgaban para secarla en rejillas largas. Escribe della Croce: "Todavía en el siglo XIX, las operaciones comerciales de pasta estaban equipadas con enormes comederos llenos de masa, que era amasada por trabajadores descalzos que caminaban al ritmo de la música de mandolina. El rey de Nápoles, Fernando II (1830-1859) , trató de modernizarse contratando a un famoso ingeniero para diseñar un nuevo sistema más higiénico. (El resultado fue un hombre mecánico con pies de bronce) ".

8. La primera fábrica de pasta en los Estados Unidos estaba en Brooklyn. En este caso, fueron los caballos los que hicieron el trabajo que estaban amarrados a un dispositivo amasador gigante. Zerega Pasta se fundó en 1848 y todavía se vende en la actualidad, aunque la sede de la empresa se trasladó a Nueva Jersey en 1952.

9. La canción 'Yankee Doodle' fue escrita por los ingleses para burlarse de los estadounidenses, pero resultó contraproducente. Escribe Kummer en The Atlantic: "A mediados del siglo XVIII macarrones se refirió a un peinado exagerado, así como al dandy que lo usa, lo que puede ser la razón por la que Yankee Doodle se metió una pluma en la gorra y llamó al efecto macarrones. Garabatear proviene de una palabra alemana que significa "simplón", la misma definición que fideos en ese momento (los alimentos honestos y ricos en almidón como las bolas de masa han tenido durante mucho tiempo mala reputación). La canción "Yankee Doodle" fue utilizada por los británicos para ridiculizar a los colonos estadounidenses, quienes la adoptaron en defensa propia ".

10. En los primeros platos, la pasta solía ser un plato dulce, no salado. "Según Al Idrisi, el geógrafo árabe encargado por el rey Roger II de Sicilia a principios del siglo XII para escribir un libro sobre sus exploraciones de la isla, los sicilianos hicieron un tipo de pasta llamada itriyah (la palabra persa para "cadena"). Estaba formado alrededor de una aguja de tejer para hacerlo hueco. Evolucionó a tria y luego trii , una especie de espagueti que todavía se usa en Sicilia y en algunas otras partes del sur de Italia. La antigüedad tria (que significa "pequeños hilos") se servían con salsas dulces a menudo basadas en miel y canela, ingredientes que siguen siendo prominentes en la cocina siciliana ", escribe della Croce.


10 Things You Probably Don't Know About Pasta

Although I grew up in New York with many Italian-American friends and have eaten my way around Italy a couple of times, it wasn't until I opened Julia della Croce's book, "Pasta Classica: The Art of Italian Cooking," that I realized how much I didn't know about the history of this food.

My knowledge was limited to knowing that somehow, the different shapes for pasta were supposed to go with different sauces, and that Marco Polo had brought pasta to Italy from his voyage to China — only it turns out both of these "facts" are incorrect! I didn't know how much I had to learn.

I made a list of some of real facts I discovered, and if you want to learn more, you can read an excerpt from the history chapter of della Croce's book, which contains much more than the details listed here, and from which the longer quotes here are taken.

1. Pasta was being eaten throughout the world long before Marco Polo was born. Polo made his trip to China in 1269, returning to Venice 24 years later. But pasta was being eaten in Sicily in 1154, and some version of pasta may have been eaten by the Greeks as early as 1 AD. There are numerous (and sometimes conflicting) historical accounts of pasta being eaten throughout the Middle East (in the Jerusalem Talmud in 5 A.D.), the Mediterranean and various parts of Asia — all prior to Polo's trip and going back hundreds and even thousands of years.

2. The first pasta dish people ate was probably lasagne. In a third century recipe book compiled by Roman noble and noted gourmet Marcus Apicius, he described a dish made with layers of laganon, which is a broad noodle similar to what we think of as lasagne noodles today — the laganon were used to make a filled and layered pie in Apicus' description. And as Corby Kummer describes in an Atlantic article that also delves into the history of pasta, "Marco Polo spoke of lasagne, which then meant 'noodles,' to describe what he saw, which indicates that he was already familiar with the food."

3. Pasta secca (dried pasta) helped our ancestors explore the world. Whether it was a long caravan ride through desert terrain or a long voyage by ship, dried pasta was a good source of calories and nutrients that could be transported over long distances without spoilage. Pasta could be cooked with some kind of fat and salt and whatever vegetables, meat or fish could be found for a satisfying meal. (Think you'd get sick of pasta? It holds up surprisingly well: I ate it most nights on a two-week camping trip in the Rockies (paired with dried cheese and tomato sauce), and I still remember how delicious and satisfying it was after a long day of physical exertion.)

4. Pasta's healthfulness has been in question for most of its history. About 400 years ago, Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine called out pasta as a health threat. The monk Girolamo Savonarola thought consuming pasta and other "luxurious" foods would come between people and their spiritual purity. He shouted from his pulpit: "It's not enough for you to eat your pasta fried. No! You think you have to add garlic to it, and when you eat ravioli, it's not enough to boil it in a pot and eat it in its juice, you have to fry it in another pan and cover it with cheese!" I'm not sure of the good doctor's end, but it's worth nothing that Savonarola was burned at the stake.

5. Some even thought pasta could cause mental illness. Everyone from German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer to the Italian Fascist party thought pasta made people too relaxed and lazy — Mussolini even considered banning it at one point. Della Croce writes, "In the 1930s, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, the Italian futurist poet and social reformer, embarked on a well-publicized crusade to change the Italian diet, specifically the centuries-old "addiction" to pasta. "It is necessary, once and for all, to annihilate pasta. . . . Pastasciutta, however grateful to the palate, is an obsolete food it is heavy, brutalizing, and gross its nutritive qualities are deceptive it induces sloth, skepticism, and pessimism.' In a country on the threshold of war, Marinetti's charge, 'Spaghetti is no food for fighters!' did not fall on deaf ears."

6. Pasta was a street food and spaghetti was eaten by hand. According to della Croce's book, in Naples "A street culture developed around the cooking, selling and eating of dried pasta. Charcoal fires surrounded by makeshift wooden stalls were to be seen everywhere, offering a pot of boiling, salted water full of macaroni. A mound of grated cheese waited to be piled on top of it, and the pasta was eaten just that way, with fingers."

7. Pasta was kneaded by foot in Italy. In people's homes, most made pasta by mixing and kneading it by hand. But pasta was also made in factories dating back to at least the 1700s and while they were turning out quantities of pasta, they didn't have much in the way of machines to do it. So, workers would mix and knead the pasta with their feet while sitting on benches, and then it was hung out to dry on long racks. Writes della Croce: "As late as the 19th Century, commercial pasta operations were outfitted with huge troughs filled with dough, which was kneaded by barefoot workers trodding to the rhythm of mandolin music. The king of Naples, Ferdinand II (1830-1859), tried to modernize by hiring a famous engineer to design a new, more hygienic system. (The result was a mechanical man with bronze feet.)"

8. The first pasta factory in the U.S. was in Brooklyn. In this case, it was horses that did the work they were harnessed to a giant kneading device. Zerega Pasta was founded in 1848, and is still sold today, though the headquarters for the company moved to New Jersey in 1952.

9. The 'Yankee Doodle' song was written by the English to make fun of Americans, but it backfired. Writes Kummer in The Atlantic: "In the mid-eighteenth century macarrones referred to an overblown hairstyle as well as to the dandy wearing it, which may be why Yankee Doodle stuck a feather in his cap and called the effect macaroni. Doodle comes from a German word meaning "simpleton" — the same definition that noodle had at the time (honest, starchy foods like dumplings have long had bad reputations). The song "Yankee Doodle" was used by the British to ridicule the American colonists, who adopted it in self-defense."

10. In early dishes, pasta was often a sweet dish, not a savory one. "According to Al Idrisi, the Arab geographer commissioned by King Roger II of Sicily in the early 12th Century to write a book about his explorations of the island, Sicilians made a type of pasta called itriyah (the Persian word for "string"). It was fashioned around a knitting needle to make it hollow. It evolved into tria y luego trii , a kind of spaghetti still used in Sicily and some other parts of southern Italy. The antique tria (meaning "little strings") were served with sweet sauces often based on honey and cinnamon, ingredients that remain prominent in Sicilian cooking," writes della Croce.


10 Things You Probably Don't Know About Pasta

Although I grew up in New York with many Italian-American friends and have eaten my way around Italy a couple of times, it wasn't until I opened Julia della Croce's book, "Pasta Classica: The Art of Italian Cooking," that I realized how much I didn't know about the history of this food.

My knowledge was limited to knowing that somehow, the different shapes for pasta were supposed to go with different sauces, and that Marco Polo had brought pasta to Italy from his voyage to China — only it turns out both of these "facts" are incorrect! I didn't know how much I had to learn.

I made a list of some of real facts I discovered, and if you want to learn more, you can read an excerpt from the history chapter of della Croce's book, which contains much more than the details listed here, and from which the longer quotes here are taken.

1. Pasta was being eaten throughout the world long before Marco Polo was born. Polo made his trip to China in 1269, returning to Venice 24 years later. But pasta was being eaten in Sicily in 1154, and some version of pasta may have been eaten by the Greeks as early as 1 AD. There are numerous (and sometimes conflicting) historical accounts of pasta being eaten throughout the Middle East (in the Jerusalem Talmud in 5 A.D.), the Mediterranean and various parts of Asia — all prior to Polo's trip and going back hundreds and even thousands of years.

2. The first pasta dish people ate was probably lasagne. In a third century recipe book compiled by Roman noble and noted gourmet Marcus Apicius, he described a dish made with layers of laganon, which is a broad noodle similar to what we think of as lasagne noodles today — the laganon were used to make a filled and layered pie in Apicus' description. And as Corby Kummer describes in an Atlantic article that also delves into the history of pasta, "Marco Polo spoke of lasagne, which then meant 'noodles,' to describe what he saw, which indicates that he was already familiar with the food."

3. Pasta secca (dried pasta) helped our ancestors explore the world. Whether it was a long caravan ride through desert terrain or a long voyage by ship, dried pasta was a good source of calories and nutrients that could be transported over long distances without spoilage. Pasta could be cooked with some kind of fat and salt and whatever vegetables, meat or fish could be found for a satisfying meal. (Think you'd get sick of pasta? It holds up surprisingly well: I ate it most nights on a two-week camping trip in the Rockies (paired with dried cheese and tomato sauce), and I still remember how delicious and satisfying it was after a long day of physical exertion.)

4. Pasta's healthfulness has been in question for most of its history. About 400 years ago, Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine called out pasta as a health threat. The monk Girolamo Savonarola thought consuming pasta and other "luxurious" foods would come between people and their spiritual purity. He shouted from his pulpit: "It's not enough for you to eat your pasta fried. No! You think you have to add garlic to it, and when you eat ravioli, it's not enough to boil it in a pot and eat it in its juice, you have to fry it in another pan and cover it with cheese!" I'm not sure of the good doctor's end, but it's worth nothing that Savonarola was burned at the stake.

5. Some even thought pasta could cause mental illness. Everyone from German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer to the Italian Fascist party thought pasta made people too relaxed and lazy — Mussolini even considered banning it at one point. Della Croce writes, "In the 1930s, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, the Italian futurist poet and social reformer, embarked on a well-publicized crusade to change the Italian diet, specifically the centuries-old "addiction" to pasta. "It is necessary, once and for all, to annihilate pasta. . . . Pastasciutta, however grateful to the palate, is an obsolete food it is heavy, brutalizing, and gross its nutritive qualities are deceptive it induces sloth, skepticism, and pessimism.' In a country on the threshold of war, Marinetti's charge, 'Spaghetti is no food for fighters!' did not fall on deaf ears."

6. Pasta was a street food and spaghetti was eaten by hand. According to della Croce's book, in Naples "A street culture developed around the cooking, selling and eating of dried pasta. Charcoal fires surrounded by makeshift wooden stalls were to be seen everywhere, offering a pot of boiling, salted water full of macaroni. A mound of grated cheese waited to be piled on top of it, and the pasta was eaten just that way, with fingers."

7. Pasta was kneaded by foot in Italy. In people's homes, most made pasta by mixing and kneading it by hand. But pasta was also made in factories dating back to at least the 1700s and while they were turning out quantities of pasta, they didn't have much in the way of machines to do it. So, workers would mix and knead the pasta with their feet while sitting on benches, and then it was hung out to dry on long racks. Writes della Croce: "As late as the 19th Century, commercial pasta operations were outfitted with huge troughs filled with dough, which was kneaded by barefoot workers trodding to the rhythm of mandolin music. The king of Naples, Ferdinand II (1830-1859), tried to modernize by hiring a famous engineer to design a new, more hygienic system. (The result was a mechanical man with bronze feet.)"

8. The first pasta factory in the U.S. was in Brooklyn. In this case, it was horses that did the work they were harnessed to a giant kneading device. Zerega Pasta was founded in 1848, and is still sold today, though the headquarters for the company moved to New Jersey in 1952.

9. The 'Yankee Doodle' song was written by the English to make fun of Americans, but it backfired. Writes Kummer in The Atlantic: "In the mid-eighteenth century macarrones referred to an overblown hairstyle as well as to the dandy wearing it, which may be why Yankee Doodle stuck a feather in his cap and called the effect macaroni. Doodle comes from a German word meaning "simpleton" — the same definition that noodle had at the time (honest, starchy foods like dumplings have long had bad reputations). The song "Yankee Doodle" was used by the British to ridicule the American colonists, who adopted it in self-defense."

10. In early dishes, pasta was often a sweet dish, not a savory one. "According to Al Idrisi, the Arab geographer commissioned by King Roger II of Sicily in the early 12th Century to write a book about his explorations of the island, Sicilians made a type of pasta called itriyah (the Persian word for "string"). It was fashioned around a knitting needle to make it hollow. It evolved into tria y luego trii , a kind of spaghetti still used in Sicily and some other parts of southern Italy. The antique tria (meaning "little strings") were served with sweet sauces often based on honey and cinnamon, ingredients that remain prominent in Sicilian cooking," writes della Croce.


10 Things You Probably Don't Know About Pasta

Although I grew up in New York with many Italian-American friends and have eaten my way around Italy a couple of times, it wasn't until I opened Julia della Croce's book, "Pasta Classica: The Art of Italian Cooking," that I realized how much I didn't know about the history of this food.

My knowledge was limited to knowing that somehow, the different shapes for pasta were supposed to go with different sauces, and that Marco Polo had brought pasta to Italy from his voyage to China — only it turns out both of these "facts" are incorrect! I didn't know how much I had to learn.

I made a list of some of real facts I discovered, and if you want to learn more, you can read an excerpt from the history chapter of della Croce's book, which contains much more than the details listed here, and from which the longer quotes here are taken.

1. Pasta was being eaten throughout the world long before Marco Polo was born. Polo made his trip to China in 1269, returning to Venice 24 years later. But pasta was being eaten in Sicily in 1154, and some version of pasta may have been eaten by the Greeks as early as 1 AD. There are numerous (and sometimes conflicting) historical accounts of pasta being eaten throughout the Middle East (in the Jerusalem Talmud in 5 A.D.), the Mediterranean and various parts of Asia — all prior to Polo's trip and going back hundreds and even thousands of years.

2. The first pasta dish people ate was probably lasagne. In a third century recipe book compiled by Roman noble and noted gourmet Marcus Apicius, he described a dish made with layers of laganon, which is a broad noodle similar to what we think of as lasagne noodles today — the laganon were used to make a filled and layered pie in Apicus' description. And as Corby Kummer describes in an Atlantic article that also delves into the history of pasta, "Marco Polo spoke of lasagne, which then meant 'noodles,' to describe what he saw, which indicates that he was already familiar with the food."

3. Pasta secca (dried pasta) helped our ancestors explore the world. Whether it was a long caravan ride through desert terrain or a long voyage by ship, dried pasta was a good source of calories and nutrients that could be transported over long distances without spoilage. Pasta could be cooked with some kind of fat and salt and whatever vegetables, meat or fish could be found for a satisfying meal. (Think you'd get sick of pasta? It holds up surprisingly well: I ate it most nights on a two-week camping trip in the Rockies (paired with dried cheese and tomato sauce), and I still remember how delicious and satisfying it was after a long day of physical exertion.)

4. Pasta's healthfulness has been in question for most of its history. About 400 years ago, Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine called out pasta as a health threat. The monk Girolamo Savonarola thought consuming pasta and other "luxurious" foods would come between people and their spiritual purity. He shouted from his pulpit: "It's not enough for you to eat your pasta fried. No! You think you have to add garlic to it, and when you eat ravioli, it's not enough to boil it in a pot and eat it in its juice, you have to fry it in another pan and cover it with cheese!" I'm not sure of the good doctor's end, but it's worth nothing that Savonarola was burned at the stake.

5. Some even thought pasta could cause mental illness. Everyone from German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer to the Italian Fascist party thought pasta made people too relaxed and lazy — Mussolini even considered banning it at one point. Della Croce writes, "In the 1930s, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, the Italian futurist poet and social reformer, embarked on a well-publicized crusade to change the Italian diet, specifically the centuries-old "addiction" to pasta. "It is necessary, once and for all, to annihilate pasta. . . . Pastasciutta, however grateful to the palate, is an obsolete food it is heavy, brutalizing, and gross its nutritive qualities are deceptive it induces sloth, skepticism, and pessimism.' In a country on the threshold of war, Marinetti's charge, 'Spaghetti is no food for fighters!' did not fall on deaf ears."

6. Pasta was a street food and spaghetti was eaten by hand. According to della Croce's book, in Naples "A street culture developed around the cooking, selling and eating of dried pasta. Charcoal fires surrounded by makeshift wooden stalls were to be seen everywhere, offering a pot of boiling, salted water full of macaroni. A mound of grated cheese waited to be piled on top of it, and the pasta was eaten just that way, with fingers."

7. Pasta was kneaded by foot in Italy. In people's homes, most made pasta by mixing and kneading it by hand. But pasta was also made in factories dating back to at least the 1700s and while they were turning out quantities of pasta, they didn't have much in the way of machines to do it. So, workers would mix and knead the pasta with their feet while sitting on benches, and then it was hung out to dry on long racks. Writes della Croce: "As late as the 19th Century, commercial pasta operations were outfitted with huge troughs filled with dough, which was kneaded by barefoot workers trodding to the rhythm of mandolin music. The king of Naples, Ferdinand II (1830-1859), tried to modernize by hiring a famous engineer to design a new, more hygienic system. (The result was a mechanical man with bronze feet.)"

8. The first pasta factory in the U.S. was in Brooklyn. In this case, it was horses that did the work they were harnessed to a giant kneading device. Zerega Pasta was founded in 1848, and is still sold today, though the headquarters for the company moved to New Jersey in 1952.

9. The 'Yankee Doodle' song was written by the English to make fun of Americans, but it backfired. Writes Kummer in The Atlantic: "In the mid-eighteenth century macarrones referred to an overblown hairstyle as well as to the dandy wearing it, which may be why Yankee Doodle stuck a feather in his cap and called the effect macaroni. Doodle comes from a German word meaning "simpleton" — the same definition that noodle had at the time (honest, starchy foods like dumplings have long had bad reputations). The song "Yankee Doodle" was used by the British to ridicule the American colonists, who adopted it in self-defense."

10. In early dishes, pasta was often a sweet dish, not a savory one. "According to Al Idrisi, the Arab geographer commissioned by King Roger II of Sicily in the early 12th Century to write a book about his explorations of the island, Sicilians made a type of pasta called itriyah (the Persian word for "string"). It was fashioned around a knitting needle to make it hollow. It evolved into tria y luego trii , a kind of spaghetti still used in Sicily and some other parts of southern Italy. The antique tria (meaning "little strings") were served with sweet sauces often based on honey and cinnamon, ingredients that remain prominent in Sicilian cooking," writes della Croce.


10 Things You Probably Don't Know About Pasta

Although I grew up in New York with many Italian-American friends and have eaten my way around Italy a couple of times, it wasn't until I opened Julia della Croce's book, "Pasta Classica: The Art of Italian Cooking," that I realized how much I didn't know about the history of this food.

My knowledge was limited to knowing that somehow, the different shapes for pasta were supposed to go with different sauces, and that Marco Polo had brought pasta to Italy from his voyage to China — only it turns out both of these "facts" are incorrect! I didn't know how much I had to learn.

I made a list of some of real facts I discovered, and if you want to learn more, you can read an excerpt from the history chapter of della Croce's book, which contains much more than the details listed here, and from which the longer quotes here are taken.

1. Pasta was being eaten throughout the world long before Marco Polo was born. Polo made his trip to China in 1269, returning to Venice 24 years later. But pasta was being eaten in Sicily in 1154, and some version of pasta may have been eaten by the Greeks as early as 1 AD. There are numerous (and sometimes conflicting) historical accounts of pasta being eaten throughout the Middle East (in the Jerusalem Talmud in 5 A.D.), the Mediterranean and various parts of Asia — all prior to Polo's trip and going back hundreds and even thousands of years.

2. The first pasta dish people ate was probably lasagne. In a third century recipe book compiled by Roman noble and noted gourmet Marcus Apicius, he described a dish made with layers of laganon, which is a broad noodle similar to what we think of as lasagne noodles today — the laganon were used to make a filled and layered pie in Apicus' description. And as Corby Kummer describes in an Atlantic article that also delves into the history of pasta, "Marco Polo spoke of lasagne, which then meant 'noodles,' to describe what he saw, which indicates that he was already familiar with the food."

3. Pasta secca (dried pasta) helped our ancestors explore the world. Whether it was a long caravan ride through desert terrain or a long voyage by ship, dried pasta was a good source of calories and nutrients that could be transported over long distances without spoilage. Pasta could be cooked with some kind of fat and salt and whatever vegetables, meat or fish could be found for a satisfying meal. (Think you'd get sick of pasta? It holds up surprisingly well: I ate it most nights on a two-week camping trip in the Rockies (paired with dried cheese and tomato sauce), and I still remember how delicious and satisfying it was after a long day of physical exertion.)

4. Pasta's healthfulness has been in question for most of its history. About 400 years ago, Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine called out pasta as a health threat. The monk Girolamo Savonarola thought consuming pasta and other "luxurious" foods would come between people and their spiritual purity. He shouted from his pulpit: "It's not enough for you to eat your pasta fried. No! You think you have to add garlic to it, and when you eat ravioli, it's not enough to boil it in a pot and eat it in its juice, you have to fry it in another pan and cover it with cheese!" I'm not sure of the good doctor's end, but it's worth nothing that Savonarola was burned at the stake.

5. Some even thought pasta could cause mental illness. Everyone from German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer to the Italian Fascist party thought pasta made people too relaxed and lazy — Mussolini even considered banning it at one point. Della Croce writes, "In the 1930s, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, the Italian futurist poet and social reformer, embarked on a well-publicized crusade to change the Italian diet, specifically the centuries-old "addiction" to pasta. "It is necessary, once and for all, to annihilate pasta. . . . Pastasciutta, however grateful to the palate, is an obsolete food it is heavy, brutalizing, and gross its nutritive qualities are deceptive it induces sloth, skepticism, and pessimism.' In a country on the threshold of war, Marinetti's charge, 'Spaghetti is no food for fighters!' did not fall on deaf ears."

6. Pasta was a street food and spaghetti was eaten by hand. According to della Croce's book, in Naples "A street culture developed around the cooking, selling and eating of dried pasta. Charcoal fires surrounded by makeshift wooden stalls were to be seen everywhere, offering a pot of boiling, salted water full of macaroni. A mound of grated cheese waited to be piled on top of it, and the pasta was eaten just that way, with fingers."

7. Pasta was kneaded by foot in Italy. In people's homes, most made pasta by mixing and kneading it by hand. But pasta was also made in factories dating back to at least the 1700s and while they were turning out quantities of pasta, they didn't have much in the way of machines to do it. So, workers would mix and knead the pasta with their feet while sitting on benches, and then it was hung out to dry on long racks. Writes della Croce: "As late as the 19th Century, commercial pasta operations were outfitted with huge troughs filled with dough, which was kneaded by barefoot workers trodding to the rhythm of mandolin music. The king of Naples, Ferdinand II (1830-1859), tried to modernize by hiring a famous engineer to design a new, more hygienic system. (The result was a mechanical man with bronze feet.)"

8. The first pasta factory in the U.S. was in Brooklyn. In this case, it was horses that did the work they were harnessed to a giant kneading device. Zerega Pasta was founded in 1848, and is still sold today, though the headquarters for the company moved to New Jersey in 1952.

9. The 'Yankee Doodle' song was written by the English to make fun of Americans, but it backfired. Writes Kummer in The Atlantic: "In the mid-eighteenth century macarrones referred to an overblown hairstyle as well as to the dandy wearing it, which may be why Yankee Doodle stuck a feather in his cap and called the effect macaroni. Doodle comes from a German word meaning "simpleton" — the same definition that noodle had at the time (honest, starchy foods like dumplings have long had bad reputations). The song "Yankee Doodle" was used by the British to ridicule the American colonists, who adopted it in self-defense."

10. In early dishes, pasta was often a sweet dish, not a savory one. "According to Al Idrisi, the Arab geographer commissioned by King Roger II of Sicily in the early 12th Century to write a book about his explorations of the island, Sicilians made a type of pasta called itriyah (the Persian word for "string"). It was fashioned around a knitting needle to make it hollow. It evolved into tria y luego trii , a kind of spaghetti still used in Sicily and some other parts of southern Italy. The antique tria (meaning "little strings") were served with sweet sauces often based on honey and cinnamon, ingredients that remain prominent in Sicilian cooking," writes della Croce.


10 Things You Probably Don't Know About Pasta

Although I grew up in New York with many Italian-American friends and have eaten my way around Italy a couple of times, it wasn't until I opened Julia della Croce's book, "Pasta Classica: The Art of Italian Cooking," that I realized how much I didn't know about the history of this food.

My knowledge was limited to knowing that somehow, the different shapes for pasta were supposed to go with different sauces, and that Marco Polo had brought pasta to Italy from his voyage to China — only it turns out both of these "facts" are incorrect! I didn't know how much I had to learn.

I made a list of some of real facts I discovered, and if you want to learn more, you can read an excerpt from the history chapter of della Croce's book, which contains much more than the details listed here, and from which the longer quotes here are taken.

1. Pasta was being eaten throughout the world long before Marco Polo was born. Polo made his trip to China in 1269, returning to Venice 24 years later. But pasta was being eaten in Sicily in 1154, and some version of pasta may have been eaten by the Greeks as early as 1 AD. There are numerous (and sometimes conflicting) historical accounts of pasta being eaten throughout the Middle East (in the Jerusalem Talmud in 5 A.D.), the Mediterranean and various parts of Asia — all prior to Polo's trip and going back hundreds and even thousands of years.

2. The first pasta dish people ate was probably lasagne. In a third century recipe book compiled by Roman noble and noted gourmet Marcus Apicius, he described a dish made with layers of laganon, which is a broad noodle similar to what we think of as lasagne noodles today — the laganon were used to make a filled and layered pie in Apicus' description. And as Corby Kummer describes in an Atlantic article that also delves into the history of pasta, "Marco Polo spoke of lasagne, which then meant 'noodles,' to describe what he saw, which indicates that he was already familiar with the food."

3. Pasta secca (dried pasta) helped our ancestors explore the world. Whether it was a long caravan ride through desert terrain or a long voyage by ship, dried pasta was a good source of calories and nutrients that could be transported over long distances without spoilage. Pasta could be cooked with some kind of fat and salt and whatever vegetables, meat or fish could be found for a satisfying meal. (Think you'd get sick of pasta? It holds up surprisingly well: I ate it most nights on a two-week camping trip in the Rockies (paired with dried cheese and tomato sauce), and I still remember how delicious and satisfying it was after a long day of physical exertion.)

4. Pasta's healthfulness has been in question for most of its history. About 400 years ago, Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine called out pasta as a health threat. The monk Girolamo Savonarola thought consuming pasta and other "luxurious" foods would come between people and their spiritual purity. He shouted from his pulpit: "It's not enough for you to eat your pasta fried. No! You think you have to add garlic to it, and when you eat ravioli, it's not enough to boil it in a pot and eat it in its juice, you have to fry it in another pan and cover it with cheese!" I'm not sure of the good doctor's end, but it's worth nothing that Savonarola was burned at the stake.

5. Some even thought pasta could cause mental illness. Everyone from German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer to the Italian Fascist party thought pasta made people too relaxed and lazy — Mussolini even considered banning it at one point. Della Croce writes, "In the 1930s, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, the Italian futurist poet and social reformer, embarked on a well-publicized crusade to change the Italian diet, specifically the centuries-old "addiction" to pasta. "It is necessary, once and for all, to annihilate pasta. . . . Pastasciutta, however grateful to the palate, is an obsolete food it is heavy, brutalizing, and gross its nutritive qualities are deceptive it induces sloth, skepticism, and pessimism.' In a country on the threshold of war, Marinetti's charge, 'Spaghetti is no food for fighters!' did not fall on deaf ears."

6. Pasta was a street food and spaghetti was eaten by hand. According to della Croce's book, in Naples "A street culture developed around the cooking, selling and eating of dried pasta. Charcoal fires surrounded by makeshift wooden stalls were to be seen everywhere, offering a pot of boiling, salted water full of macaroni. A mound of grated cheese waited to be piled on top of it, and the pasta was eaten just that way, with fingers."

7. Pasta was kneaded by foot in Italy. In people's homes, most made pasta by mixing and kneading it by hand. But pasta was also made in factories dating back to at least the 1700s and while they were turning out quantities of pasta, they didn't have much in the way of machines to do it. So, workers would mix and knead the pasta with their feet while sitting on benches, and then it was hung out to dry on long racks. Writes della Croce: "As late as the 19th Century, commercial pasta operations were outfitted with huge troughs filled with dough, which was kneaded by barefoot workers trodding to the rhythm of mandolin music. The king of Naples, Ferdinand II (1830-1859), tried to modernize by hiring a famous engineer to design a new, more hygienic system. (The result was a mechanical man with bronze feet.)"

8. The first pasta factory in the U.S. was in Brooklyn. In this case, it was horses that did the work they were harnessed to a giant kneading device. Zerega Pasta was founded in 1848, and is still sold today, though the headquarters for the company moved to New Jersey in 1952.

9. The 'Yankee Doodle' song was written by the English to make fun of Americans, but it backfired. Writes Kummer in The Atlantic: "In the mid-eighteenth century macarrones referred to an overblown hairstyle as well as to the dandy wearing it, which may be why Yankee Doodle stuck a feather in his cap and called the effect macaroni. Doodle comes from a German word meaning "simpleton" — the same definition that noodle had at the time (honest, starchy foods like dumplings have long had bad reputations). The song "Yankee Doodle" was used by the British to ridicule the American colonists, who adopted it in self-defense."

10. In early dishes, pasta was often a sweet dish, not a savory one. "According to Al Idrisi, the Arab geographer commissioned by King Roger II of Sicily in the early 12th Century to write a book about his explorations of the island, Sicilians made a type of pasta called itriyah (the Persian word for "string"). It was fashioned around a knitting needle to make it hollow. It evolved into tria y luego trii , a kind of spaghetti still used in Sicily and some other parts of southern Italy. The antique tria (meaning "little strings") were served with sweet sauces often based on honey and cinnamon, ingredients that remain prominent in Sicilian cooking," writes della Croce.


10 Things You Probably Don't Know About Pasta

Although I grew up in New York with many Italian-American friends and have eaten my way around Italy a couple of times, it wasn't until I opened Julia della Croce's book, "Pasta Classica: The Art of Italian Cooking," that I realized how much I didn't know about the history of this food.

My knowledge was limited to knowing that somehow, the different shapes for pasta were supposed to go with different sauces, and that Marco Polo had brought pasta to Italy from his voyage to China — only it turns out both of these "facts" are incorrect! I didn't know how much I had to learn.

I made a list of some of real facts I discovered, and if you want to learn more, you can read an excerpt from the history chapter of della Croce's book, which contains much more than the details listed here, and from which the longer quotes here are taken.

1. Pasta was being eaten throughout the world long before Marco Polo was born. Polo made his trip to China in 1269, returning to Venice 24 years later. But pasta was being eaten in Sicily in 1154, and some version of pasta may have been eaten by the Greeks as early as 1 AD. There are numerous (and sometimes conflicting) historical accounts of pasta being eaten throughout the Middle East (in the Jerusalem Talmud in 5 A.D.), the Mediterranean and various parts of Asia — all prior to Polo's trip and going back hundreds and even thousands of years.

2. The first pasta dish people ate was probably lasagne. In a third century recipe book compiled by Roman noble and noted gourmet Marcus Apicius, he described a dish made with layers of laganon, which is a broad noodle similar to what we think of as lasagne noodles today — the laganon were used to make a filled and layered pie in Apicus' description. And as Corby Kummer describes in an Atlantic article that also delves into the history of pasta, "Marco Polo spoke of lasagne, which then meant 'noodles,' to describe what he saw, which indicates that he was already familiar with the food."

3. Pasta secca (dried pasta) helped our ancestors explore the world. Whether it was a long caravan ride through desert terrain or a long voyage by ship, dried pasta was a good source of calories and nutrients that could be transported over long distances without spoilage. Pasta could be cooked with some kind of fat and salt and whatever vegetables, meat or fish could be found for a satisfying meal. (Think you'd get sick of pasta? It holds up surprisingly well: I ate it most nights on a two-week camping trip in the Rockies (paired with dried cheese and tomato sauce), and I still remember how delicious and satisfying it was after a long day of physical exertion.)

4. Pasta's healthfulness has been in question for most of its history. About 400 years ago, Dr. Giovanni da Vigo Florentine called out pasta as a health threat. The monk Girolamo Savonarola thought consuming pasta and other "luxurious" foods would come between people and their spiritual purity. He shouted from his pulpit: "It's not enough for you to eat your pasta fried. No! You think you have to add garlic to it, and when you eat ravioli, it's not enough to boil it in a pot and eat it in its juice, you have to fry it in another pan and cover it with cheese!" I'm not sure of the good doctor's end, but it's worth nothing that Savonarola was burned at the stake.

5. Some even thought pasta could cause mental illness. Everyone from German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer to the Italian Fascist party thought pasta made people too relaxed and lazy — Mussolini even considered banning it at one point. Della Croce writes, "In the 1930s, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti, the Italian futurist poet and social reformer, embarked on a well-publicized crusade to change the Italian diet, specifically the centuries-old "addiction" to pasta. "It is necessary, once and for all, to annihilate pasta. . . . Pastasciutta, however grateful to the palate, is an obsolete food it is heavy, brutalizing, and gross its nutritive qualities are deceptive it induces sloth, skepticism, and pessimism.' In a country on the threshold of war, Marinetti's charge, 'Spaghetti is no food for fighters!' did not fall on deaf ears."

6. Pasta was a street food and spaghetti was eaten by hand. According to della Croce's book, in Naples "A street culture developed around the cooking, selling and eating of dried pasta. Charcoal fires surrounded by makeshift wooden stalls were to be seen everywhere, offering a pot of boiling, salted water full of macaroni. A mound of grated cheese waited to be piled on top of it, and the pasta was eaten just that way, with fingers."

7. Pasta was kneaded by foot in Italy. In people's homes, most made pasta by mixing and kneading it by hand. But pasta was also made in factories dating back to at least the 1700s and while they were turning out quantities of pasta, they didn't have much in the way of machines to do it. So, workers would mix and knead the pasta with their feet while sitting on benches, and then it was hung out to dry on long racks. Writes della Croce: "As late as the 19th Century, commercial pasta operations were outfitted with huge troughs filled with dough, which was kneaded by barefoot workers trodding to the rhythm of mandolin music. The king of Naples, Ferdinand II (1830-1859), tried to modernize by hiring a famous engineer to design a new, more hygienic system. (The result was a mechanical man with bronze feet.)"

8. The first pasta factory in the U.S. was in Brooklyn. In this case, it was horses that did the work they were harnessed to a giant kneading device. Zerega Pasta was founded in 1848, and is still sold today, though the headquarters for the company moved to New Jersey in 1952.

9. The 'Yankee Doodle' song was written by the English to make fun of Americans, but it backfired. Writes Kummer in The Atlantic: "In the mid-eighteenth century macarrones referred to an overblown hairstyle as well as to the dandy wearing it, which may be why Yankee Doodle stuck a feather in his cap and called the effect macaroni. Doodle comes from a German word meaning "simpleton" — the same definition that noodle had at the time (honest, starchy foods like dumplings have long had bad reputations). The song "Yankee Doodle" was used by the British to ridicule the American colonists, who adopted it in self-defense."

10. In early dishes, pasta was often a sweet dish, not a savory one. "According to Al Idrisi, the Arab geographer commissioned by King Roger II of Sicily in the early 12th Century to write a book about his explorations of the island, Sicilians made a type of pasta called itriyah (the Persian word for "string"). It was fashioned around a knitting needle to make it hollow. It evolved into tria y luego trii , a kind of spaghetti still used in Sicily and some other parts of southern Italy. The antique tria (meaning "little strings") were served with sweet sauces often based on honey and cinnamon, ingredients that remain prominent in Sicilian cooking," writes della Croce.